Vanadium-based electrolytes have been prominent in the development of RFBs since the 1980s. In the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB), vanadium used for both electrolyte and doesn’t suffer from cross contamination problems. Significant developments and successful demonstrations in the vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) were pioneered to Skyllas-Kazacos and co-workers at the University of New South Wales, Australia. [Currently, VRB systems have several technical barriers limiting their development. The main problem is their low energy density (15-70  Wh/L and 15-50Wh/kg), which is five to ten times lower than the lithium-ion battery. The low energy density in RFBs is due to the limited solubility of active materials in electrolytes, which also limits the operating temperature.]

More than 30 large scale VRB plants have been installed globally for utilities, microgrid, supporting renewables, commercial and industrial building by manufacturers.